So critical was this objective that within three weeks of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the army was ordered to revise its plans and bring forward the conquest of Java by thirty days. The map here illustrated taken from that document was unavailable when Tjideng Reunion was first published. The Battle of the Java Sea , Feb , referred to in the above map, was at the time the biggest naval engagement since the battle of Jutland.
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Your email address will not be published. Powered by Pinboard Theme and WordPress. Battle of the Java Sea February The Netherlands had been controlled by France for several years and was already at war with Britain. He arrived in Java aboard the French privateer Virginie in , and began fortifying the island against the threat of a British siege. He also improved the island's defences by building new hospitals, barracks, arms factories and a new military college. In , the Netherlands were formally annexed by France. Janssens had previously served as Governor General of the Cape Colony , and had been forced to capitulate after being defeated by British forces at the Battle of Blaauwberg in Stamford Raffles , an official of the British East India Company who had been forced to leave the Dutch settlement at Malacca when the Netherlands were annexed, suggested to Lord Minto , the Governor-General of India , that Java and the other Dutch possessions should be captured.
With the large forces which had been made available to him for the Mauritius campaign, Minto enthusiastically adopted the suggestion, and even proposed to accompany the expedition himself.
THE JAPANESE CONQUEST OF JAVA 1942
The Navy was active off the Javanese coastline before and during the expedition. Auchmuty and Broughton became the military and naval commanders in chief respectively of the expedition. Those too ill to travel on were landed at Malacca, and on 11 June the fleet sailed onwards.
After calling at various points en route, the force arrived off Indramayu on 30 June. There the fleet waited for a time for intelligence concerning the Dutch strength. On learning of the successful British landing, Janssens withdrew from Batavia with his army, which amounted to between 8, and 10, men, and garrisoned themselves in Fort Cornelis.
Ancient Javanese Art and Its Conquest of the West
The city surrendered to the forces under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had offered promises to respect private property. General Janssens had always intended to rely on the tropical climate and disease to weaken the British army rather than oppose a landing. The Dutch military and naval station at Weltevreeden fell to the British after an attack on 10 August. British losses did not exceed while the defenders lost over Weltevreeden was six miles from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British began preparing fortifications of their own, some yards from the Franco-Dutch positions.
Two hundred and eighty cannon were mounted on its walls and bastions. Its defenders were a mixed bag of Dutch, French and East Indies troops. Most of the locally raised East Indian troops were of doubtful loyalty and effectiveness, although there were some determined artillerymen from Celebes. The captured station at Weltevreeden proved an ideal base from which the British could lay siege to Fort Cornelis.
On 14 August the British completed a trail through the forests and pepper plantations to allow them to bring up heavy guns and munitions, and opened siege works on the north side of the Fort. For several days, there were exchanges of fire between the fort and the British batteries, manned mainly by Royal Marines and sailors from HMS Nisus.
A sortie from the fort early on the morning of 22 August briefly seized three of the British batteries, until they were driven back by some of the Bengal Sepoys and the 69th Foot. Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed, but recovered to storm a third redoubt.
The French General Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed themselves to blow up the redoubt's magazine.
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The three redoubts were nevertheless the key to the defence, and their loss demoralised most of Janssens's East Indian troops. Many Dutch troops also defected, repudiating their allegiance to the French.
The British stormed the fort at midnight on 25 August, capturing it after a bitter fight. The defenders' casualties were heavier, but only those among officers were fully recorded. Forty of them were killed, sixty-three wounded and captured, including two French generals. Total British losses in the campaign after the fall of Fort Cornelis amounted to killed, wounded and 13 missing from the Army, and 15 killed, 45 wounded and three missing from the Navy; a total of killed, wounded and 16 missing by 27 August.
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Royal Navy ships continued to patrol off the coast, occasionally making raids on targets of opportunity. Bucephalus ' s commander, Captain Charles Pelly, turned about and tried to lead the pursuing French over shoals, but seeing the danger, they hauled off and abandoned the chase, returning to Europe.
The Conquest of Java
General Jamelle, a member of Janssens's staff, was captured in the fall of the town. While the navy took control of coastal towns, the army pushed on into the interior of the island. Janssens had been reinforced on 3 September by 1, mounted irregulars under Prince Prang Wedono and other Javanese militia. On 16 September Salatiga fell to the British. Many of the native militia killed their Dutch officers in the ensuing rout. Britain returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the newly independent United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the terms of the Convention of London in One enduring legacy of the British occupation was the road rules, as the British had decreed that traffic should drive on the left, and this has endured in Indonesia to this day.
Stopford's fleet on his arrival on 9 August to assume command of the expedition, consisted of the following ships, dispersed around the Javanese coast: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dutch colonial campaigns.
Napoleonic Wars. Dreams of Empire. The Naval History of Great Britain. The Victory of Seapower. Fregosi, Paul James, William London: R. Woodman, Richard London: Mercury Books.