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Essence of Humour: Stories to Make You Smile
Accessed: See Morreall for a full overview of the various theories of humour running contemporary to Baudelaire. For more information on Deburau and the imagery of the French mime, see Judith Welscher. Wechsler, Judith, A human comedy : physiognomy and caricature in 19th century Paris, Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Getting into the mind of the nineteenth century caricaturist. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Berman, Merrie Caplow, Theodore Two Against One: Coalitions in Triads. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Carroll, Noel, ed. Beyond Aesthetics: Philosophical Essays. New York: Cambridge University Press. Carroll, Noel b. Carroll, Noel c. Carroll, Noel d. Carroll, Noel New York, Cambridge Univesrity Press.
Chapman, A. Humour and laughter: Theory, research, and applications.
Cohen, Ted Jokes: Philosophical Perspectives on Laughing Matters. Chicago: Chicago Univesrity Press. Critchley, Simon On Humour. New York: Routledge. De Sousa, Ronald Cambridge, MIT. Les Passions de L'ame. Excerpts in Morreall. Dundes, Alan Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.
Dwyer, Tom Eastman, Max Enjoyment of Laughter. New York: Halcyon House. Eitzen, Dirk Richard Allen and Murray Smith. New York: Oxford Univesrity Press. Freud, Sigmund Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. New York: W. Original work published Gaut, Berys Goldstein, J. New York: Academic Press. Gregory, J. The Nature of Laughter. New York: HBC. Models and Mirrors: towards and anthropology of public events.
New York: Berghahn Books. Originally published by Cambridge University Press in Hobbes, Thomas William Molesworth, London: Bohn. Horton, Andrew S. Berkeley: University of California Press. Homo Ludens. Beacon Press. Originally published in Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgment. Bernard, Trans. New York: Hafner. Keith-Spiegel, P. Koestler, Arthur London: Hutchison Press. Layng, Anthony Anthony M. The Secret of Laughter.
New York: Viking Press. Lyttle, Jim manuscript. Mast, Gerald The Comic Mind: Comedy and the Movies. Chicago; Univesrity of Chicago Press. First published in McGhee, P. New York: Springer-Verlag. McGinn, Colin Ethics, Evil, and Fiction. New York: Oxford. Morreall, John. The Philosophy of Laughter and Humor. Taking Laughter Seriously. Nilsen Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor. Phoenix: Oxry Press. Philips, Michael Piaget, Jean Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood. Gattegno and F. M Hodgson.
New York: Norton and Company. Morreall Provine, R. Roberts, Robert C.
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Rothenberg, Paula S, ed. Racism and Sexism : An Integrated Study. New York: St. Martin's Press. Ryan, Kathryn M. Sankowski, Edward VIII, no. Schopenhauer, Arthur The World as Will and Representation. Shultz, T. The role of incongruity and resolution in children's appreciation of cartoon humor. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , 13 3 , pp.
Snyder, Mark Solomon, Robert Joel Rudinow and Anthony Graybosch. Spencer, Herbert. London: Arrow. Author Information Aaron Smuts Email: asmuts gmail. An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers. Another explanation is that humour frequently contains an unexpected, often sudden, shift in perspective. Nearly anything can be the object of this perspective twist.
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This, however, does not explain why people being humiliated and verbally abused, without it being unexpected or a shift in perspective, is considered funny - ref. The Office. Another explanation is that the essence of humour lies in two ingredients; the relevance factor and the surprise factor. First, something familiar or relevant to the audience is presented. However, the relevant situation may be so familiar to the audience that it doesn't always have to be presented, as occurs in absurd humour, for example.
From there, they may think they know the natural follow-through thoughts or conclusion. The next principal ingredient is the presentation of something different from what the audience expected, or else the natural result of interpreting the original situation in a different, less common way see twist or surprise factor. For example:. Both explanations can be put under the general heading of "failed expectations". In language, or a situation with a relevance factor, or even a sublime setting, an audience has a certain expectation. If these expectations fail in a way that has some credulity, humour results.
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This is why some link of credulity is important rather than any random line being a punchline. For this reason, many jokes work in threes. For instance, a class of jokes exists beginning with the formulaic line "A priest , a rabbi , and a lawyer are sitting in a bar Typically, the priest will make a remark, the rabbi will continue in the same vein, and then the lawyer will make a third point that forms a sharp break from the established pattern, but nonetheless forms a logical or at least stereotypical response. Example of a variation:. In this vein of thought, knowing a punch line in advance, or some situation which would spoil the delivery of the punchline, can destroy the surprise factor, and in turn destroy the entertainment value or amusement the joke may have otherwise provided.
Conversely, a person previously holding the same unexpected conclusions or secret perspectives as a comedian could derive amusement from hearing those same thoughts expressed and elaborated.
That there is commonality, unity of thought, and an ability to openly analyse and express these where secrecy and inhibited exploration was previously thought necessary can be both the relevance and the surprise factors in these situations. This phenomenon explains much of the success of comedians who deal with same-gender and same-culture audiences on gender conflicts and cultural topics, respectively.