A precise knowledge of these positions is important because inaccurate information on EEG electrodes coordinates may affect EEG inverse solution Khosla et al. This knowledge is even more crucial in the case of simultaneous EEG and fMRI study, when the sessions are conducted repeatedly over a long period of time. Approximations in the positioning of the electrodes are then made in each session and will give rise to important inaccuracies in the measured evoked potential Wood and Allison, This simultaneous acquisition allows the concordance of two different kind of information, a high temporal resolution in the order of a millisecond with EEG, and a high spatial resolution in the order of millimeter with MRI.
In this article an automated and efficient method to determine EEG electrodes positions based on a specific MR sequence is presented and evaluated. Compared to other existing approaches, the proposed method does not need additional hardware like 3D electromagnetic digitizer devices Adjamian et al. Semi-automated electrodes localization methods exist de Munck et al. Another automated method was recently developed and shown great results with an anatomical MR image Marino et al. Since this kind of cap includes plastic around electrodes and contain hydrogen protons, it can be visible on T1-w image.
For seek of genericity i. This sequence is all the more interesting in our context because it enables the visualization of the MR compatible electrodes Springer et al. We propose a fully automated method, which provides reliable and reproducible results for the detection and labeling of a MR compatible EEG cap into the MR space. The retrieval of the electrodes consisted in two parts; firstly, we provided a mask that includes the volume where the electrodes are located; secondly, we performed the electrode detection inside this volume of interest VOI.
Figure 1 presents a flowchart of the method's main steps. We hypothesized that electrodes would appear as spheres inside the UTE volume and it allows us to perform a Hough transform in a consistent manner across subjects. Figure 1. An outskin mask is performed from the T1 image 1 , then a dilation and a removal of the mask is performed 2 in order to obtain the layer where the electrodes are located. Several reliable scalp segmentation methods exist for T1-w imaging.
Because UTE images are noisier, we performed the scalp segmentation on the T1-w images and co-registered the UTE images with the T1-w images to apply the mask. A mask of the scalp is computed from the segmentation. Since electrodes are located around the head of the subject, the scalp mask is dilated toward the periphery in order to isolate this layer.
What is outside the dilated mask is subtracted in order to isolate only the layer where the electrodes are located. Hough transform is typically used to detect circles or lines in 2-dimensional data sets, but was recently extended to detect spheres in 3-dimensional data sets Borrmann et al.
As the shape of an electrode can be assimilated to a sphere, the Spherical Hough Transformation algorithm seemed particularly well adapted to this task. Figure 2 shows an example of such detections on a 2D slice of the VOI. Figure 2. Example of Hough transform detection red dots on the VOI smoothed image. Hough transform detects also anatomical parts arrow , which will be excluded in the filtering steps cf.
The detected electrodes are then filtered to get rid of the potential false detections given by the Hough transform. Due to the non-sphericity of the head and the elastic deformations of the cap, these positions are not sufficient enough to give a reliable detection by itself. However, this template will be used to identify outliers in our detections. This spherical template is registered onto the detected electrodes from previous section, through the Iterative Closest Point ICP algorithm, a well-known algorithm for registering two-cloud of points Besl and McKay, ; Chen and Medioni, The algorithm takes a first point cloud which will be kept fixed, while the other one will be spatially transformed in order to best align the reference.
The goal is to iteratively minimize a metric error, usually the distance between the two sets of points, by modifying the transformation applied to the source. In our case, the ICP will find the optimal rotation, translation and scale to fit the data point set D obtained with the Hough transform and the model point P. The algorithm is divided into 2 steps. The first step consists in estimating correspondences between the two set of points. During this step, for each point p j , in the reference set P , the closest point d i of the detected points set D is computed.
This point will be noted c j and therefore defined as follows:. The second step consists in computing the similarity transform that best aligns every c j to the corresponding p j. The minimization is expressed by:. The ICP runs until convergence. Once the ICP is completed, a two-part filtering phase is implemented. Unselected points are discarded and, after this first filtering step, the number of electrodes is therefore equal to N , the total number of electrodes desired 64 in our case.
Figure 3 illustrates the impact of this step. Figure 3. Example of outliers removal in potential electrodes data set D with the ICP algorithm. The data set obtained after the first filtering step is in red on the right.
Outliers are mostly due to external anatomical parts or noise not taken in account during the segmentation. For each removed point, a replacement is determined by a new detection from the local maxima on the VOI image around the theoretical position given by the registered template cf. Figure 4. Cross section of the VOI image. A manual selection of the electrodes positions was done on the UTE sequence and the quality of our detection was assessed using this manual selection as a ground truth.
Instead of selecting the center of each electrode in a 3D image, we choose to use a more convenient procedure for the manual detection. Following Butler et al. The performance indicators of our automated detection will be the position error PE and the positive predictive value PPV.
The position error is the average Euclidean distance between each pair of electrodes the manually selected one, considered as the ground truth, and the detected one and the PPV is the percentage of electrodes that have been well detected. We considered than a detected electrodes is well localized when the PE is below 10 mm, which corresponds to the diameter of the electrode Kavanagk et al.
We also compared the performance of our method against a more traditional semi-automatic one: five fiducial points were selected manually and the spherical template was adjusted to these points Towle et al. This method, although not recent, is still used by many studies e.
After IRB approval, eight healthy volunteers provided written informed consent to take part in the study. Electrodes are attached to small cups with inner diameter of 10 and 4 mm height, inserted in the cap and filled with gel to minimize the contact impedance. All subject wore a large circumference between 56 and 58 cm MR compatible cap from Brainproduct Gilching, Germany and a particular attention was given to its positioning according to standard fiducial points. Two additional UTE sequences with lower sampling resolution were acquired in order to decrease the acquisition time and to investigate the impact on electrodes detection.
If the policy framework is right, ICT can become one of the major contributors to reduction of CO2 and a more resourceful and equitable society.
The world faces serious environmental challenges and problems. Solutions to these are usually seen as being opposed to economic development. However, new technologies and knowledge can ensure that sustainable resource use and economic development is not only possible but mutually supportive. By approaching the challenges from a new perspective, problems can turn into opportunities: Pacific Controls has prepared the road map to support the major structural contributions where ICT and M2M Technologies can break the current emission trends in buildings and infrastructure:.
The most recent results presented by climate scientists are alarming. The accumulation of greenhouse gases GHG in the atmosphere is growing faster than originally predicted. The scale of emission reductions that could be enabled by the smart integration of ICT into new ways of operating, living, working, learning and travelling makes the sector a key player in the fight against climate change, despite its own growing carbon footprint. No other sector can supply technology capabilities so integral to energy efficiency across such a range of other sectors or industries.
But with this potential comes responsibility. Emissions reductions in other sectors will not simply present themselves; the ICT sector must demonstrate leadership on climate change and governments must provide the optimum regulatory context. This report outlines the key actions needed. It can monitor M energy consumption and emissions across the economy in real time, providing the data needed to optimize for energy efficiency.
Network tools can be developed that allow accountability A for energy consumption and emissions alongside other key business priorities. This information can be used to rethink R how we should live, learn, play and work in a low carbon economy, initially by optimising efficiency, but also by providing viable low cost alternatives to high carbon activities. Although isolated efficiency gains do have an impact, ultimately it will be a platform -or a set of technologies and architectures -working coherently together, that will have the greatest impact.
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It is through this enabling platform that transformation T of the economy will occur, when standardisation, monitoring, accounting, optimisation and the business models that drive low carbon alternatives can be developed and diffused at scale across all sectors of the economy. It will need the help of governments and other industries. Smart implementation of ICTs will require policy support including standards implementation, secure communication of information within and between sectors and financing for research and pilot projects.
This report demonstrates the potential role the ICT sector could play in mitigating climate change. It is now up to policy makers, industry leaders and the sector itself to make sure this potential is realised. Information and Communication Technologies ICT have an important role to play in reducing the energy consumption and therefore increasing the efficiency of the economy, in other words, in reducing emissions and contributing to sustainable growth.
Indeed emerging changes offer the possibility of modernizing the global economy, towards a future where technology and society will be attuned to new needs where innovation will create solutions using ICT to reduce energy consumption in buildings around the world. ICT will improve energy efficiency and help combat climate change, it will also stimulate the development of large leading edge market for ICT enabled energy efficiency technologies that will foster the competitiveness of global industry and create new approaches in measurement, verification of carbon footprint in real time.
As ICT is today pervasive to all industrial and business domains, it is expected to generate a great impact in the energy efficiency of new and existing buildings. Pacific Controls focuses on delivering ICT solutions for energy services in new and existing buildings. The focus is on the building itself, including equipments and devices, the envelope, and the potential connection with the ecosystem e.
It also includes considerations from an urban point of view. It is clear that, if the world is to succeed and achieve its ambitious objectives, the role of ICT as an enabler of energy efficiency across the economy needs to be fully explored and exploited. In order to put ICT at the core of the energy efficiency effort and to enable it to reach its full potential, Pacific Controls have initiated research and development into ICT-based solutions and launched campaigns to strengthen and accelerate the adoption process by engineers, consultants, architects, planners government departments and developers, so that the energy consumption impact of the economy can be further reduced by adding intelligence to components, equipment and services.
The GCCC are state of the art facilities established in different continents of the world, using unique ICT based software and hardware for real time management of the energy eco system. This is due to heating, cooling and lighting operations within buildings. Buildings are the largest source of CO2 emissions including their electric power consumption , and their total energy consumption has been rising since As such, developers need to deal with new challenges including addressing construction from the viewpoint of sustainable development, energy efficiency and decrease of GHG emissions, improved innovation in the built environment for better comfort and safety.
The cross-fertilization of buildings and ICT with new innovative ICT architectures and tools integrated in the built environment has to deal with the key following expectations:. Smart buildings means buildings empowered by ICT in the context of the merging Ubiquitous Computing and the Internet of Things: the generalization in instrumenting buildings with sensors, actuators, micro-chips, micro- and nano embedded systems will allow to collect, filter and produce more and more information locally, to be further consolidated and managed globally according to business functions and services Machine to Machine —M2M.
User awareness is a key factor for moving to eco-friendly behavior. However, very few building owners know what consumes the most energy in their building s and even fewer look regularly and accurately at the energy meter attached to their building since it remains an uneasy and tedious task.
Energy Efficient Buildings construction is one of worlds biggest industries providing building and infrastructure on which all sectors of the economy depend. Efficiency in buildings has been identified as the main challenge for the coming years since it is well known that buildings are the largest source of CO2 emissions. In order to address this strategic topic, the construction model must evolve towards a new multidisciplinary approach which will empower the scope and impact of future developments, improving cooperation with ICT, energy and other sectors.
This is a big responsibility. This cross-sectoral initiative could really contribute in a significant way to the fight against climate change issues, in addition to decreasing the worlds fossil fuel dependence. Pacific Controls has developed ICT tools which will enable significant energy consumption reductions at an early stage, to the building operation phase, where, as an example, advanced metering infrastructure could provide the framework for joint business models among energy utilities, telecom operators and building management companies.
Building owners and operators have been generally slow to adopt practices that could improve their energy efficiencies. This is due to many factors, including a lack of incentives for owners, insufficient demand from tenants, and the expense associated with retrofitting legacy systems. The inability to centralize and manage data found within building equipment is a challenge. Existing commercial buildings are full of technology and communication devices that have been installed ad hoc over time. In this non-integrated, multi protocol environment, monitoring energy usage and device performance is perceived to be difficult.
Pacific Controls have developed and implemented cost effective software hardware solutions addressing this very challenge to seamlessly integrate disparate systems delivering totally integrated solutions without assigning dedicated personals or team typically assigned to monitor or use building data to drive building management efficiencies using M2M and ICT systems.
Pacific Controls have delivered solutions to digitize buildings and make it possible for devices to work together more effectively and reduce energy consumption. Pacific Controls has also established GCCC where multiple number of buildings in a city are managed through a web interface where building operators stay connected and pull data out of every set point at desired intervals. This gives a constant stream of data to understand how the building is operating and how it can be run more efficiently. In short, our solutions make buildings smarter on a continuous basis.
Pacific Controls uses devices like sensors, meters and intelligent objects based on open protocols that are standardized and open to communicate among them and with services over the network. This also ensures the optimization of resource management and quality control. The aim is to have seamless connectivity to the right information, at the right time, in the right format, and from the right sources, both internal and external.
Open knowledge sharing among all stake holders globally will enable an improvement on cross-sectoral joint cooperation. These kinds of tools will enable collaborative design and construction processes shared by architects, engineers and even clients. Entering this virtual working environment, the architect could control the energy efficient design, the engineer could assess the timetable and the building-costs and the client could choose among different solutions at an early stage.
Applying Pacific Controls ICT solutions for control systems and home automation has already made an impact on energy demand at the level of households and much more at the level of publicly owned buildings which are professionally managed. Pacific Controls integrated building control systems has enabled the integrated interaction of a number of technological elements such as heating, ventilation, air conditioning, lighting, safety equipment etc. The embedding of ambient intelligence in building, sensors, wireless communications and data processing has contributed to better temperature management, leading to reduced energy consumption.
Pacific Controls is also developing bi-directional communication capabilities enabling utility companies to perform demand-side management in order to reduce energy peaks risks as well as energy production costs. In addition, human-centric graphical user interfaces developed by Pacific Controls ensures the acceptance of embedded systems and other ICT-based solutions. The use of these intelligent systems inside buildings can improve the control and management of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, lighting, and other energy hungry devices.
However, buildings are not energy-hungry systems any more. Sensors, for determination of temperature or flow rates, are typically connected to the control system by wires. There are algorithms implemented in the control system strategies. The most significant weakness of current control systems is that, in most cases, separate controllers are used for each application.
For instance, there are often separate controllers for solar thermal, space heating and cooling, lighting and air-conditioning systems. Typically, the individual controllers operate separately, without exchanging information and, as a consequence, the building is not considered and controlled as one single system, but as a number of individual sub-systems.
This leads to sub-optimal results in terms of energy flow, comfort, cost and controllability. The most appropriate solution will be interoperable control systems, governing all HVAC, and lighting other electrical applications, and related sub-systems installed in a building.
In order to do it quickly, efficiently and safely, especially avoiding ambiguities, the concept is related to the one of open standards. This second point obviously links with interoperability technologies and tools to achieve embedded intelligence: interoperability will allow devices and applications in smart homes and buildings to collaborate and provide consumers with greater flexibility in selecting their desired services, and will support the potential cooperation between constructions; energy and ICT based services companies. Management information systems require, detailed analysis of potential impacts of ICT-based solutions on energy efficiency is needed as well as the creation of energy saving business models supported by ICT.
Pacific Controls has launched a series of innovative building technology products and smart devices: dealing with more energy efficient space heating, HVAC equipments, elevators, water boilers, appliances, white goods, etc.
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Transparency creating products: educating energy end users about the impact of their choices and behaviors on their energy consumption and therefore encouraging more conscious use of energy. To the end-user Pacific Controls is able to offer energy efficiency applications using multimodal interactive interfaces TV, PC, mobile phone To the utility company, Pacific Controls can offer smart metering services. The system also enables technicians to manage many buildings from a central location thereby achieving scale and energy efficiencies using Pacific Controls GCCC to play an important role in providing secure remote access to smart homes, buildings and infrastructure from a countrywide and global perspective.
Pacific Controls delivers the services of an Energy Services Company ESCO offering a wide range of services to energy users, including operation and maintenance of installations, facility management, energy management, energy audits, demand monitoring and management, measurement of carbon foot print and validating carbon financial instruments in real time through the Pacific Controls. This figure increases in the non residential building sector. Pacific Controls is already offering Smart integration of new lighting technology high performance technology and devices e.
Pacific Controls offers cost-effective deployment of specific ubiquitous ICT systems along with the seamless adaptation of moving environment context, e. Whilst cars had to meet increasingly strict fuel efficiency standards, buildings for the most part have gotten off easy.
Surprisingly little attention has been paid to ensuring energy efficiency in buildings, despite the tremendous impact buildings have on costs and the environment. This oversight is starting to be addressed. A combination of higher energy prices, skyrocketing demand for electricity and deepening environmental concerns has pushed the world to a tipping point with regard to energy efficiency in buildings. Business as usual threatens worlds continued prosperity.
Asian Development Bank, World Bank and some Governments have offered similar funding to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The advent of ICT enabled energy services solutions have revolutionized the deployment process. The economics are powerful, promising quick paybacks on investments for building developers and their tenants. Greater efficiency means consumers can enjoy the same level of comfort but use less energy. And when it comes to efficiency, improvements in buildings offer the most cost-effective way to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The McKinsey Global Institute, which has studied the issue on a worldwide basis, estimates that four of the five most cost-effective measures taken to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions involve building efficiency.
Incredibly, these measures result in net savings for building owners and their tenants, because the cost of improvements is so cheap compared to the savings. Pacific Controls offers end to end platform that proactively monitors facilities such as commercial buildings, educational Institutions, banks and financial institutions, government service Infrastructure like airports, ports and railway infrastructure, residential buildings, data centers industrial facilities, telecom infrastructure and power distribution network.
This platform provides unambiguous transparency into how the facility performs, where critical faults lie, and where opportunities exist to significantly reduce operational expenses. This robust M2M communications and automation platform can easily be tailored and expanded to manage and report any number of facility infrastructure assets from any standards compliant manufacturer. Our modular approach, built on a proven architecture, enables intelligence across power generation and distribution, cooling and chiller equipment, lighting and environmental systems, water and waste systems, physical building security systems, and other facility subsystems.
Pacific Controls offers complete facility management and monitoring solution that optimizes performance, drives the reduction of energy consumption and cost, increases systems efficiency, and helps to significantly improve facility end user satisfaction. Our facility monitoring solutions help to proactively resolve impending problems and enhance business operations. These solutions enable monitoring that informs the business about the status of their facilities and their subsystems, providing an ability to address problems before they arise. Remote monitoring and management is rapidly becoming an integral part of facility management services globally.
Conventional methods of management, where data logging and equipment registers are maintained and reactively reviewed, are obsolete and ineffective. Under our state of the art automated management framework, we apply deep analytics to the review of streams of logs and performance data from infrastructure devices. This logic, akin to data mining and profiling, provides deep insight and intelligence into the real time and trended performance and capabilities of infrastructure assets.
Traditional manual processes rely on site visits, costly maintenance programs, and in best case scenarios, failure notifications from dedicated software or devices, or BMS platform. This traditional approach does not provide any proactive insight into asset performance, Power distribuition unitsor provide individual or aggregate guidance on the energy consumption and capabilities of the facility.
Without this information, it is difficult to impossible to determine if the facility and its infrastructure components are performing to their intended level, are cost ineffective, or where there are opportunities for improvements that drive down operational costs. Even more challenging in the traditional approach is the lack of any efficient method to apply performance and consumption benchmarks, or to compare current performance against a measured baseline. Thus, how would one know when or if infrastructure performance is degraded or there is a need to consider the cost efficacy for equipment replacement.
Our solution provides the means to easily and properly understand the scale of any problems and opportunities through the establishment of benchmarks, baselines, and performance and consumption metrics and targets. Valid trending analysis requires extensive ongoing capture and analysis of data from infrastructure assets, which is a core strength of our solution. These services can also be applied as energy auditing, which provides regular recommendation reports to justify upgrades and infrastructure changes.
This network of intelligent devices provides the basis for real time and trend analysis of Power Usage, performance effectiveness against laid down benchmarks. While there are several methods for delivering these capabilities, Pacific Controls approach has proven exceedingly effective in the monitoring and management of facilities. Figure 1, below, provides a visual representation of the architecture of our solution, implemented at facility level. Our solution monitors power quality and consumption at each and every level.
We either install our digital multifunction energy meters, or integrate into existing metering systems via industry standard open and legacy protocols. Level 1: Utility Power The utility and transformer output power are measured and monitored. This provides a clear indication of transformer efficiency and loss, and also provides a baseline for building entry power. Level 2: Cooling and Lighting The power consumed by cooling equipment — from chillers through air handlers and closely coupled cooling equipment — is measured to understand consumption patterns.
The above methods help to provide key efficiency and consumption figures for protected power distribution. Further granularity — down to the building level is possible through the deployment of sets of inexpensive sensors and meters at key points in the power distribution chain. These meters and systems directly communicate with the data servers.
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This first, modest integration point will let SharePoint Online users click on the Yammer link and launch a separate. Schneider Electric, a multinational energy management company, has embarked on a robotic.
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Make sure the service is started! Do the following: Right-click on your Start button to open the Windows Menu. Skip to content. If it is repetitive and can be. Some people get a lot of email attachments! This tutorial came about as a result of an enquiry from a client of mine who received each day around twenty emails, each with an attached file. Microsoft Teams is a chat-based collaboration platform built on Office technologies. Si es necesario, el robot puede interactuar con las personas. Security Note: Outlook accepts a wide variety of different file types, but blocks potentially unsafe attachments including.
Some of the benefits showcased during this POC were automation of repetitive tasks such as:. The highly visual process designer allows users for fast and easy configuration of robotic workflows by simply drag-and-drop activities in the user interface. In this way it frees employees' time for more complex tasks and customer interaction. Azure and Office generally available. Thanks so much for the reply. Let us verify that we are connected with Office MSG file type viewer application available free of cost to open and view MSG file messages independently.
Activities" in UiPath. Hi All, I wanted to post this for everyone else that encounters the same issue in the future. This allows Office to relay those messages to your own mailboxes as well as external recipients. This meeting is being scheduled in order to provide an introductory course to Office for administrative professionals.
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Specifically, Outlook performs slowly when you open email messages, and mail sits for a long time in the Outbox after you send it. Especially has strong experience in programming with SharePoint Server , , , , Office , Azure, etc. The two terms, 'robotic process automation' and 'artificial intelligence' AI have taken the business world by storm, to say the very least, so much that both RPA and AI have become ubiquitous in the business world given their potential to determine the very success of business and the plethora of benefits that accrue on account of their use.
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