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VIII beast with seven heads and ten horns, ready to tear out our bowels, and scatter them to the four winds of heaven. Masonry gives rogues and evil-minded characters an op- portunity of visiting upon their devoted victim, all the ills at tending combined power, when exerted to accomplish de- struction. It works unseen, at all silent hours, and secret times and places ; and, like death when summoning his dis- eases, pounces upon its devoted subject, and lays him pros- trate in the dust.

Like the great enemy of man, it has shown its cloven foot, and put the public upon its guard against its secret machinations. This part of the subject requires no further discussion either by way of ridicule or downright sincerity, but the re- mark which cannot be too often reiterated, that the world, in its present advanced state, requires no such order for our social intercourse ; and when the Masonic mania prevails as it now does in this country, we are exalting a mere human ordinance, with its useless trumpery and laughable accom- paniments, for the sublime and unadorned lessons of Heaven.

To some men it is galling and mortifying in the extreme to give up their darling systems. With the increase of years their fondness becomes so great that they cling to them with wild and bewildered attachment. But we would ask them, where now are the Knights of Malta and Jerusalem, and the objects that called forth their perils and journeyings? Where are the crusades and excursions on which our Grand Commanders, Generalissimos and Sir Knights are to be en- gaged In no other excursions than Cer- vantes describes of his redoubtable hero Don Quixote.

The days and occasions that called forth these deeds of chivalry and valor have passed like those before the flood ; and the mock dignitaries and puppet show actions of Masons in their imitation call forth pity and indignation. When we now see the gaudy show in a lodge-room, and a train of nominal offi- cers with their distinction and badges, it may give us some faint idea of scenes that are past, and may gratify an idle curiosity, but produces no substantial good under heaven.

When monasteries and cloisters, and inquisitor's cells and prisons have been broken up before the sweeping march of the moral mind, why this unnecessary mummery should be so much countenanced in this country, above all other IX countries in the world, is a matter of astonishment. The day we trust will never arrive here, when ranks in Masonry will be stepping-stones to places of dignity and power-when this institution will be a machine to press down the free born spirit of men. We have now no tyrant to rule over us-no kingly potentate to move over our heads the rod of authority ; but high in our elevation, and invincible in our strongholds, we put at defiance secret cabals and as- sociations.

The public opinion is like a mighty river, and gigantic in its course it will sweep every interposing obstacle before it. In the work which we submit to the public we have given false coloring to nothing ; nor in these remarks have we set down aught in malice. In the firm discharge of our un- dertaking we have been stern and unbending as the rugged mountain oak ; and persecutions, pains and perils have not deterred us from our purpose. We have triumphed over tu- mult, and clamor, and evil speaking.

When our book goes out to the world, it will meet with attacks of a violent nature from one source, and men of mock titles and order will endeavor to heap upon. Men more tenacious of absolute forms and prac- tice than they are attentive to truth and honor, will deny our expositions, and call us liars and impostors.

Such is the treatment, however ungenerous and unjust, which we expect to meet, and for which we are prepared. Truth, we know, is majestic and will finally prevail. The little petty effusions of malice that will be thrown out, will die with their authors, whom this work will survive. We now aver, in defiance of whatever may be said to the contrary-no matter by whom, how exalted his rank-that this book is what it pretends to be ; that it is a master key to the secrets of Masonry ; that in the pages before him, the man of candor and inquiry can judge for himself, and then a proper judgment will be formed of our intention.

Description of the Ceremonies used in opening a Lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons ; which is the same in all upper degrees, with the exception of the difference in the signs, due-guards, grips, pass-grips, words and their sev- eral names; all of which will be given and explained in their proper places as the work progresses. One rap calls the lodge to order-one calls up the junior and Senior Deacons-two raps call up all the subordinate officers, and three, all the members of the lodge. The Master to Junior Deacon, 'Brother, by whom? Master to junior Deacon, 'Brother junior, your place in the lodge?

Worshipful Master. Senior Warden. Junior Deacon. Junior Warden. Brethren, attend to giving the signs. In some they declare the lodge opened as follows, before they give the signs :] The Master all the Brethren imitating him extends his left arm from his body so as to form an angle of about forty-five degrees, and holds his right hand transversely across his left, the palms , thereof about one inch apart.

Entacd Penal Sign. Candidate's hands are placed Appreutic, in when he takes the obligation of an Entered Apprentice Mason. The Master then draws his right hand across his throat, the hand open, with the thumb next to his throat, and drops it down by his side. This is called the penal sign of an Entered Apprentice Ma- son, many call it sign and alludes to the penalty of the ob- ligation. See obligation. Its serve thee aright, and that all our actions may tend to thy glory and our advancement in knowledge and virtue. And we beseech thee, 0 Lord God, to bless our present assem- bling ; and to illuminate our minds through the influence of the Son of Righteousness, that we may walk in the light of thy countenance ; and when the trials of our probationary state are over, be admitted into the temple, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

So mote it be. Another prayer, as often used at opening as closing Behold, how good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity ; it is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard, that went down to the skirts of his garment ; as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion, for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even life forever more.

The lodge being now open and ready to proceed to busi- ness, the Master directs the Secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting, which naturally brings to view the busi- ness of the present. If there are any candidates to be brought forward, that will be the first business to be attended to. I will therefore pro- ceed with a description of the ceremonies used in the admis- sion and initiation of a candidate into the first degree of Masonry.

A person wishing to become a Mason must get some one who is a Mason to present his petition to a lodge, when, if there are no serious objections, it will be entered on the minutes,. The following is a form of petition used by a candidate ; but a worthy candidate will not be rejected for the want of formality in his petition To the Worshipful Master, Wardens and Brethren of Lodge No. The subscriber, residing in , of lawful age, and by oc- cupation a , begs leave to state that, unbiased by friends, and uninfluenced by mercenary motives, he freely and voluntarily offers himself a candidate for the mysteries of Masonry, and that he is prompted to solicit this privilege by a favorable opinion conceived of the institution, a desire Should his petition be granted, he will cheerfully conform to all the ancient established usages and customs of the fraternity.

Signed A. At the next regular communication, if no very serious ob- jection appears against the candidate the ballot boxes will be passed ; one black ball will reject a candidate. The box- es may be passed three times.

The Deacons are the proper persons to pass them. One of the boxes has black and white beans or balls in it, the other empty, the one with the balls in it goes before, and furnishes each member with a black and white ball ; the empty box follows and receives them. There are two holes in the top of this box with a small tube, generally in each, one of which is black and the other white, with a partition in the box. The members put both their balls into this box as their feelings dictate ; when the balls are received, the box is presented to the Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, who pronounce clear or not clear, as the case may be.

The ballot proving clear, the candidate if present is conducted into a small preparation room, ad- joining the lodge when he is asked the following questions and gives the following answers. Senior Deacon to Candidate, "Do you sincerely declare, upon your honor before these gentlemen, that, unbiased by friends, uninfluenced by unworthy motives, you freely and voluntarily offer yourself a candidate for the mysteries of Masonry.? I therefore recommend him as a proper candidate for the mysteries of Masonry and worthy to partake of the privileges of the fraternity and in conse- quence of a declaration of his intentions, voluntarily made, I believe he will cheerfully conform to the rules of the order.

The candidate is then blindfolded, his left foot bare, his right in a slipper, his left breast and arm naked, and a rope called a Cable-tow round his neck and left arm, [the rope is not put round the arm in all lodges] in which posture the candidate is conducted to the door where he is caused to give, or the conductor gives three distinct knocks, which are answered by three from within ; the conductor gives one more, which is also answered by one from within. Who comes there? John, as all true fellows and brothers have done who have gone this way before him.

Is he duly and truly pre- pared? Endue him with a competency of thy- divine wisdom, that by the secrets of our art he may be the better enabled to display the beauties of holiness, to the honor of thy holy name. As the candidate and conductor are passing round the.

It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard, that went down to the skirts of his garment as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion, for there the Lord commanded the bless- ing, even life for evermore. The Master likewise demands of him from whence he came and whither he is traveling.

The candidate answers, "from the west and traveling to the east. He first steps off" with the left foot and brings up the heel of the right into the hollow thereof ; the heel of the right foot a ainst the ankle of the left, will of course form the right angle of an oblong square ; the candidate then kneels on his left knee, and places his right foot so, as to form a square with the left ; he turns his foot round until the ankle bone is as much in front of him as the toes on the left foot, the This is the position in which a candidate is placed when he takes upon him the oath or obligation of an Entered Apprentice Mason.

As soon as the candidate is placed in this position, the Worshipful Master approaches him, and says, "Mr. If you are willing to take it, repeat your name and say after me :" [And although many have refused to take any kind of an ob- ligation, and begged for the privilege of retiring, yet none have ever made their escape ; they have been either coerced or persuaded to submit.

There are thousands who never return to the lodge after they are initiated. John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sin- cerely promise and swear that I will always hail, ever con- ceal and never reveal any part or parts, art or arts, point or points of the secret arts and mysteries of ancient Freemason- ry which I have received, am about to receive, or may here- after be instructed in, to any person or persons in the known world, except it be to a true and lawful brother Ma- son, or within the body of a just and lawful d constituted lodge of such ; and not unto him, nor unto them whom I shall hear so to be, but unto him and them only whom I shall find so to be after strict trial and due examination, or law- ful information.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not write, print, stamp, stain, hew, cut, carve, in- dent, paint, or engrave it on any thing movable or immova- ble. To all of which I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, without the least equivo- cation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me Have you not confidence in every virtue?

May these thoughts ever in- spire you with the most noble sentiments ; may you ever feel that elevation of soul that shall scorn a dishonest act. Brother, what do you most desire? I once knew a man to faint on being brought to light ; and his recovery was quite doubtful for some time ; however, he did come to, but he never returned to the lodge again.

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I have often conversed with him on the subject ; he is yet living, and will give a certificate in support of the above statement at any time if requested. After the candidate. The Holy Bible is given to us as a rule and guide for our faith and practice ; the Square, to square our The three lesser lights are three burning tapers, or candles placed on candlesticks some say, or candles on pedestals they rep- resent the sun, moon, and Master of the lodge, and are thus explained.

As the sun rules the day and the moon governs the night, so ought the worshipful Master with equal regu- larity to rule and govern his lodge, or cause the same to be done ; you next discover me, as Master of this lodge, ap- proaching you from the east upon the first step of Masonry, under the sign and due-guard of an Entered Apprentice Ma- son. The sign and due-guard has been explained. This is the manner of giving them ; imitate me as near as you can, keeping your position.

First step off with your left foot, and bring the heel of the right into the hollow thereof, so as to form a square. It is the name of the left hand pillar of the porch of King Solo- mon's temple. Arise, brother Boaz, and salute the Junior and Senior Wardens, as such, and convince them that you have been regularly initiated as an Entered Apprentice Ma- son, and have got the sign, grip and word. It is an emblem of innocence, and the badge of a Mason-it has been worn by kings, princes and potentates of the earth, who have never been ashamed to wear it.

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It is more honorable than the diadems of kings, or pearls of princesses, when worthily worn ; it is more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, more honorable than the Star and Garter, or any other order that can be conferred upon you at this or any other time, except it be in the body of a just and lawfully constituted lodge ; you will carry it to the Senior Warden in the west, who will teach you how to wear it as an Entered Apprentice Mason.

This is the way Entered Appren- tice Masons wear, or ought to wear their aprons until they are advanced. The candidate is now conducted to the Mas- ter in the east, who says, "Brother, as you are dressed, it is necessary you should have tools to work with ; I will now present you with the working tools of an Entered Apprentice The twenty-four inches on the gauge are emblematical of the twenty-four hours in the day, which we are taught to divide into three equal parts, whereby we find eight hours for the service of God, and a worthy, dis- tressed brother, eight hours for our usual vocations, and eight for refreshment and sleep ; the common gavel is an instrument made use of by operative Masons to break off the corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder's use, but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, use it for the more noble and glorious purpose of divesting our hearts and consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby fitting our minds as living and lively stones, for that spirit- ual building, that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

I also present you with a new name ; it is CAUTION ; it teaches you that as you are barely instruct- ed in the rudiments of Masonry, that you should be cau- tious over all your words and actions, particularly when be- fore the enemies of Masonry. I shall next present you with three precious jewels, which are a listening ear, a si- lent tongue, and a faithful heart. A listening ear teaches you to listen to the instructions of the Worshipful Master ; but more especially that you should listen to the calls and cries of a worthy, distressed brother.

A silent tongue teaches you to be silent while in the lodge that the peace and har- mony thereof may not be disturbed, but more especially that you should be silent before the enemies of Masonry that the craft may not be brought into disrepute by your impru- dence. A faithful heart teaches you to be faithful to the instructions of the Worshipful Master at all times, but more especially, that you should be faithful, and keep and con- ceal the secrets of Masonry, and those of a brother, when given to you in charge, as such ; that they may remain as secure and inviolable in your breast as in his own, before communicated to you.

I further present you with check- words, two ; their names are truth and union, and are thus s:cplained : Truth is a divine attribute and the foundation Union is that kind of friendship which ought to appear conspicuous in every Mason's conduct. It is so closely allied to the divine attribute, truth, that he who enjoys the one, is seldom destitute of the other. Should interest, honor, 'prejudice, or human depravity ever induce you to violate any part of the sacred trust we now repose in you, let these two important words, at the earliest insinuation, teach you to pull on the check-line of truth, which will infallibly direct you to pursue that straight and narrow path which ends in the full enjoyment of the Grand Lodge above, where we shall all meet as Masons and members of the same family, in peace, harmony, and love ; where all discord on account of politics, religion, or private opinion shall be unknown and banished from within your walls.

Brother, it has been a custom from time immemorial to demand, ov ask from a newly made brother,- something of a metallic kind, not so much on account of its intrinsic value, but that it may be deposited in the archives of the lodge, ai a memorial, that you were herein made a Mason ; -a small trifle will be sufficient,-anything of a metallic kind will do ; if you have no money, anything of a metallic nature will be sufficient ; even a button will do.

He is assisted in s'larching, nothing is found. If a stranger, he is very embarrassed. Master to candidate, "Brother, as you are now initiated into the first principles of Masonry, I congratulate you on having been accepted into this ancient and honorable order ; ancient, as having subsisted from time immemorial ; and honorable, as tending in every particular so to render all men who will become conformable to its principles.

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Masonic Constitutions, Or, Illustrations of Masonry

No institution was ever raised on a better principle, or more solid foundation, nor were ever more excellent rules and useful maxims laid down than are inculcated in the several Masonic lectures. The greatest and best of men in all ages have been encouragers and promoters of the art, and have never deemed it derogatory to their dignity to level themselves with the fraternity, extend their privileges, and patronize their assemblies.

To God, your neighbor, and yourself. To God, in never mentioning his name but with that reve- rential awe that is due from a creature to his Creator ; to implore his aid in all your laudable undertakings, and to esteem him as the chief good-To your neighbor, in acting upon the square and doing unto him as you wish he should do unto you ; and to yourself in avoiding all irregularity, or intemperance which may impair your faculties, or debase the dignity of your profession. A zealous attachment to these principles will ensure public and private esteem.

In the state you are to be a quiet and peaceable subject, true to your government and just to your country ; you are not to coun- tenance disloyalty, but faithfully submit to legal authority, and conform- with cheerfulness to the government of the country in which you live. In your outward demeanor be particularly careful to avoid censure or reproach. Although your frequent appearance at our regular meetings is earnestly At your leisure hours, that you may improve in Masonic knowledge, you.

Captain Morgan's Exposition of Freemasonry Contents

Finally, keep sacred and inviolable the mysteries of the order, as these are to distinguish you from the rest of the community, and mark your consequence among Masons. If, in the cir- cle of your acquaintance, you find a person desirous of being initiated into Masonry, be particularly attentive not to rec- ommend him, unless you are convinced he will conform to our rules, that the honor, glory, and reputation of the in- stitution may be firmly established, and the world at large convinced of its good effects.

It is a very common practice in lodges to close a lodge of Entered Apprentices, and open a lodge of Fellow Crafts, and close that, and open a Master Mason's lodge, all in the same even- ing. Some brother generally makes a motion that the lodge be closed ; it being seconded and carried :- The Master to the junior Deacon-"Brother junior," giving one rap which calls up both Deacons,] "the first as well as the last care of a Mason? The Junior Deacon then opens the door, delivers his message, and resumes his place in the lodge and says, "The door is tyled, Worshipful.

Master and Wardens, act as their proxy in the active duties of the lodge, and take charge of the door. A Consent of the brethren. Should the Master discover that any declined giving it, inquiry is immediately made why it is so ; and if any member is ,ft. Master to the brethren, "Attend to giving the signs ; as I do so do you ; give them downwards" which is by giving the last in opening, first in closing. In closing, on this degree, you first draw your right hand across your throat, as herein be- fore described, and then hold your two hands over each other as before described.

This is the method pursued through all the degrees ; and when opening on any of the up- per degrees, all their signs, of all the. This being done, the Master proceeds, "I now declare this lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons reg- ularly closed in due and ancient form. Brother Junior War- den, please inform brother Senior Warden, and request him to inform the brethren that it is my will and pleasure that this lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons be now closed, and stand closed until our next regular communication, un- less a case or cases of emergency shall require earlier convention, of which every member shall be notified ; during which time it is seriously hoped and expected that every brother will demean himself as becomes a Free and Accepted Mason.

Master Pardon, we beseech thee, whatever thou hast seen amiss in us since we have been together ; and con- tinue to us thy presence, protection and blessing. Make us sensible of the renewed obligations we are under to love thee supremely, and to be friendly to each other. May all our irregular passions be subdued ; and may we daily increase in faith, hope and charity, but more especially in that charity which is the bond of peace, and perfection of every virtue.

Illustrations of masonry

May we so practice thy precepts that through the merits of the Redeemer we may finally obtain thy promises, and find an acceptance through the Gates, and into the Temple and City of our God. Waite Associates, Architects. This is a book about traditional architectural technology. You will find virtually no commentary about aesthetics or formal design. Neither will you encounter much reference to historical context or social influences. Introduction to Early American Masonry maintains a laser beam focus on pre-Civil War, circa traditional American craftsmen working in masonry from production of raw materials to methods of application.

The author, Professor Harley J. He was renown for his practical know-how and exhaustive knowledge of methods of traditional craftsmanship, particularly in the fields of slate roofing and masonry. The Association for Preservation Technology International, of which the author was a co-founder and president, has after more than 40 years taken the initiative to republish Introduction to Early American Masonry, which had been long out of print and largely forgotten. While the architectural avant garde was going gaga over the possibilities of mass produced concrete, glass and steel, the mid-century also had its fair share of practitioners and academics who were justly concerned with what was being deliberately discarded, literally bulldozed in the industrial stampede of all things Modernist.

These concerns found resonance with the public leading to political support culminating in the National Historic Preservation Act of A few publications of this kind are available, though scarce. However, a vast body of essential knowledge is available in the minds and notes of specialists. A systematic program should be developed to get this information written down and duplicated for general use.

On the professional level they are necessary both for the training of architects and craftsmen.


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The following year, , the Graduate Program in Restoration and Preservation of Historic Architecture at Colombia University initiated a new course in early American building where Professor McKee developed a lecture series covering early American masonry. One of the first things that struck me was the precision in terminology exercised by the author. He makes a point of immediately establishing a vocabulary, highlighting American uses of important terms for materials and methods, noting occasional differences in usage or vocabulary between America and England. Approximately two thirds of the book is devoted to traditional craft methods, the remaining third to materials.

Stone is given slightly more attention than brick masonry and plaster. This is understandable as the quarrying and carving of stone is considered, in addition to the masonry. Having personal experience in plaster, stone and brick masonry, I can testify that the information presented is quite accurate and well presented, enriched by the many hand drawn illustrations by the author himself. Quite unique is the identification of numerous historic American quarries for sandstone, limestone, granite and marble.

In addition to hand drawings, the book is replete with photos highlighting exceptional examples of craftsmanship from around the country. The book concludes with an Appendix that points to a number of valuable 19th- to early 20th-century sources for further study.